Human Physiology From Cells to Systems Sherwood 9th Edition Test Bank

Human Physiology From Cells to Systems Sherwood 9th Edition Test Bank

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Name: Human Physiology From Cells to Systems
Author: Sherwood
Edition: 9th
ISBN-10: 1285866932
Type: Test Bank

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Human Physiology From Cells to Systems Sherwood 9th Edition Test Bank

Human Physiology From Cells to Systems Sherwood 9th Edition Test Bank

 

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Name: Human Physiology From Cells to Systems

Author: Sherwood

Edition: 9th

ISBN-10: 1285866932

Type: Test Bank

 

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Human Physiology From Cells to Systems Test Bank

Human Physiology From Cells to Systems Sherwood 9th Edition Test Bank ISBN: 1285866932

Chapter 1—Introduction to Physiology and Homeostasis

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Select the incorrect association.
a. anatomy/heart structure
b. human body/multicellularity
c. oxygen/cellular waste
d. physiology/stomach function
e. unicellularity/amoeba

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

2. Which of the following is a mechanistic explanation of a physiological phenomenon?
a. You breathe to obtain oxygen.
b. You sweat to cool off.
c. Your stomach secretes digestive juices when stimulated by the nervous system.
d. Your heart beats to pump blood.
e. Your kidneys produce urine so that cellular wastes do not poison your body.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Application

3. The influence of oxytocin on the uterus during childbirth and the subsequent effect of uterine stretch on the release of oxytocin is an example of
a. negative feedback
b. positive feedback
c. extrinsic control
d. negative feedback and extrinsic control
e. none of these

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

4. Food in your stomach is in direct contact with ______ tissue.
a. connective
b. epithelial
c. glandular
d. muscle
e. nervous

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

5. Which of the following does a person not maintain through homeostasis?
a. Concentration of nutrients in the blood
b. Concentration of oxygen around the body
c. Blood pressure
d. Temperature of the brain
e. Posture while sitting in a chair

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

6. Sweat glands consist of specialized ______ cells.
a. connective
b. endocrine
c. epithelial
d. muscle
e. nervous

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

7. The respiratory system
a. obtains O2 from and eliminates CO2 to the internal environment
b. includes the heart and lungs
c. helps regulate the pH of the internal environment by removing acid-forming CO2 from the blood
d. performs all of the functions listed above
e. obtains O2 from and eliminates CO2 to the internal environment and helps regulate the pH of the internal environment by removing acid-forming CO2 from the blood

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

8. Select the incorrect statement about connective tissue.
a. Bone is an example.
b. Blood is an example.
c. Elastin may be found in the extracellular material.
d. It has tightly-packed cells.
e. It is a primary tissue type.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

9. Which of the following body systems is not directed entirely toward maintaining homeostasis?
a. reproductive system
b. endocrine system
c. nervous system
d. muscular system
e. integumentary system

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

10. Which sequence represents a correct hierarchy of biological organization in a human, from smaller to larger?
a. chemical, organ, tissue, system, organism
b. cell, tissue, organ, system, organism
c. tissue, cell, system, organism, organ
d. organ, tissue, cell, organism, system
e. system, cell, organ, organism, tissue

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

11. The internal environment
a. is not in direct contact with the body’s cells
b. consists of the intracellular fluid
c. must be maintained at absolutely unchanging composition, temperature, and volume for survival of the body
d. is in direct contact with the body’s cells and consists of the extracellular fluid
e. consists of the intracellular fluid and must be maintained at absolutely unchanging composition, temperature, and volume for survival of the body

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

12. Extracellular fluid
a. is the internal environment of the body
b. is outside the cells but inside the body
c. consists of the plasma and interstitial fluid
d. exhibits a dynamic steady state in regard to composition, temperature, and volume
e. is described by all of the above statements

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

13. Nutrients and oxygen are distributed through the body mainly by the ____ system.
a. circulatory
b. digestive
c. endocrine
d. integumentary
e. skeletal

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

14. Which of the following statements about negative feedback is incorrect?
a. It exists when a change in a regulated variable triggers a response that opposes the change.
b. It exists when the input to a system increases the output and the output inhibits the input.
c. The control system’s input and output continue to enhance each other.
d. It is the method by which most of the body’s control mechanisms operate.
e. It helps maintain the body’s dynamic, steady state.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

15. Identify the characteristics associated with endocrine glands.
a. lack ducts
b. secrete chemicals directly into the blood
c. derived from epithelial tissue
d. include the parathyroids
e. all of these

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

16. Which of the following is least related to connective tissue?
a. gland
b. bone
c. blood
d. tendon
e. elastin

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

17. Which of the following is not an example of negative feedback?
a. A low grade on an exam causes a student to study harder for the next exam.
b. A small stone rolls down a hill and starts an avalanche.
c. A person goes to eat in the cafeteria when he/she gets hungry.
d. You change a flat tire so you can continue on a journey in your car.
e. A person’s body shivers after the person falls into a cold river.

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Application

18. Evaporation of sweat cooling the body is an example of
a. negative feedback
b. positive feedback
c. a feedforward mechanism
d. an intrinsic (local) control mechanism
e. autoregulation

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

19. The two major regulatory systems in the body are
a. nervous and respiratory
b. nervous and endocrine
c. endocrine and respiratory
d. endocrine and lymphatic
e. circulatory and endocrine

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

20. Calcium is stored mainly in the ____ system.
a. digestive
b. endocrine
c. integumentary
d. muscular
e. skeletal

ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

21. If a letter in the alphabet is equated to a cell, then which of the following would be most like an organ?
a. two paragraphs
b. a paragraph
c. a word
d. a sentence
e. two sentences

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Application

22. Identify the correct statement(s) about stem cells.
a. They are undifferentiated embryonic cells.
b. They may reproduce many times.
c. Their daughter cells may differentiate into a number of different specialized cell types.
d. All of the above.
e. None of the above.

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

23. Which of the following is a feedforward phenomenon?
a. Increasing the amount of insulin secreted before nutrients in food enter the blood.
b. Shivering in response to having cold air around the body.
c. Sweating after being in a sauna for 10 minutes.
d. Eating a doughnut because you are hungry.
e. Jerking your hand away from a hot stove after you touch it.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: Application

24. The statement “Things are going from bad to worse” would be most closely related to
a. feedforward d. homeostasis
b. positive feedback e. regulatory control
c. negative feedback

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Application

25. The ability of the brain to maintain optimum blood pressure by speeding up or slowing down the heart is an example of
a. intrinsic control d. Both a and c
b. extrinsic control e. Both b and c
c. positive feedback

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

TRUE/FALSE

1. Cells eliminate carbon dioxide as a waste product.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

2. All cells that are not pluripotent can reproduce.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

3. Highly differentiated tissues such as nervous and cardiac muscle are incapable of reproduction because they are pluripotent.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

4. Enzymes are carbohydrates that speed up chemical reactions in the body.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

5. A mechanistic explanation of why a person breathes is to obtain oxygen.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

6. A non-mechanistic explanation of why a person sweats is to cool off.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

7. Tissues are composed of two or more types of cells organized to perform a particular function or functions.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

8. Blood is a type of connective tissue that contains small fibers of elastin protein in the extracellular material called plasma.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

9. Glands are formed during embryonic development by pockets of epithelial tissue that dip inward from the surface.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

10. Endocrine glands secrete hormones through ducts into the blood.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

11. Insulin is a hormone that is secreted into the lumen of the intestine in response to the presence of food.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

12. The epidermis that covers the skin is a simple organ.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

13. The external environment is found outside cells but inside the body.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

14. Factors that are homeostatically regulated are maintained at a constant, fixed level unless disease is present.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

15. The respiratory system removes carbon dioxide transported to it by the blood.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

16. To sustain life, the internal environment must be maintained in an absolutely unchanging state.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

17. Some activities performed by the muscular and nervous systems are not directed toward maintaining homeostasis.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

18. The plasma surrounds and bathes all of the body’s cells.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

19. The concentration of salt in the extracellular fluid influences how water enters and leaves cells.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

20. Exocrine glands are the only structures in the body capable of secretion.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

21. Secretion in response to appropriate stimulation refers to the release of specific products that have, in large part, been synthesized by the cell.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

22. The endocrine system relies on the circulatory system for the transport of hormones.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

23. One organ can belong to more than one body system.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

24. The integumentary system contains specialized organs called sweat glands, which are important in regulating body temperature.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

25. Negative feedback operates to prevent any change in the value of a controlled factor in the body.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

26. Positive feedback moves a controlled variable even further away from a steady state.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

27. With positive feedback, a control system’s input and output continue to enhance each other.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

28. Feedforward mechanisms bring about a response in reaction to a change in a regulated variable.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

29. Most homeostatic mechanisms operate on the principle of positive feedback.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

30. A single pluripotent cell without dividing can differentiate into more than one kind of mature body cell.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

31. With negative feedback, a control system’s output counteracts the input into the system.

ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

32. The simple fact that exercising muscles use more O2 is an example of negative feedback.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

33. If a pluripotent cell differentiates to become a skin cell, it may revert back to its pluripotent condition and then become a muscle cell.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

34. The way in which the nervous system affects a person’s heart rate is an example of intrinsic control since both the nervous system and the heart are inside the body.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

35. The integumentary, nervous, and endocrine systems are the only systems involved in regulating body temperature.

ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

COMPLETION

Complete each of the following statements.

1. The smallest unit capable of carrying out the processes associated with life is the ____________________.

ANS: cell

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

2. ____________________ cells are specialized to send electrical signals.

ANS: Nerve

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

3. ____________________ muscle tissue composes the heart.

ANS: Cardiac

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

4. ____________________ are composed of two or more types of primary tissue organized to perform a particular function or functions.

ANS: Organs

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

5. ____________________ glands secrete through ducts, whereas ____________________ glands secrete directly into the blood.

ANS: Exocrine, endocrine

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

6. A(n) ____________________ is a collection of organs that perform related functions and interact to accomplish a common activity that is essential for survival of the whole body.

ANS: system or organ system

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

7. The internal environment consists of the ____________________, which is made up of ____________________; the fluid portion of the blood; and ____________________, which surrounds and bathes all cells.

ANS: extracellular fluid, plasma, interstitial fluid

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

8. The ____________________ is the liquid part of the blood.

ANS: plasma

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

9. The body cells are in direct contact with, and make life-sustaining exchanges with, the ____________________.

ANS: internal environment (extracellular fluid)

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

10. ____________________ refers to maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment.

ANS: Homeostasis

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

11. ____________________ tissue is composed of cells specialized for contraction and force generation.

ANS: Muscle

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

12. The ____________________ system consists of all hormone-secreting tissues.

ANS: endocrine

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

13. The two major control systems of the body are the ____________________ and the ____________________.

ANS: nervous system, endocrine system

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

14. ____________________ are the blood vessels where materials are exchanged between the blood and the interstitial fluid.

ANS: Capillaries

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

15. The tonsils are part of the ____________________ system.

ANS: immune or lymphatic

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

16. The ____________________ system eliminates waste products other than carbon dioxide and plays a key role in regulating the volume, electrolyte composition, and acidity of the extracellular fluid.

ANS: urinary

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

17. The ____________________ system controls and coordinates bodily activities that require swift responses, especially to changes in the external environment.

ANS: nervous

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

18. ____________________ refers to the abnormal functioning of the body associated with disease.

ANS: Pathophysiology

PTS: 1 DIF: Knowledge

19. If after making a bad grade on an exam causes a student to study harder in order to make a better grade on the next exam, the student’s response to making the bad grade would be an example of ___________________ feedback.

ANS: negative

PTS: 1 DIF: Comprehension

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